Trading, especially export is a prime step in the advancement of a country’s trade balance. Thereby, financial assistance by financing the trade or by proving loans proves beneficial to expand trade. Particularly, the expenses are invariably high in internal trade thus, requiring additional aid to carry out export. Further, the assistance will ease the demeanor of the business hence easing out the process.
A Brief on Trade Financing
In layman terms, financing is providing capital as per the requirements to cover the expenditure while carrying out trade. Normally, the importer must pay prior to the shipment. But due to trade expansion globally payment terms differ including Letter of Credit, Documents against payment, cash against documents, Credit, etc. Depending on the export business working capital capacity they might require finance against the LC or invoice to fulfill the trade. Then comes trade finance to execute the export smoothly and helping exporters reach their long term goals.
Export Finance Providers
Financiers are third parties that provide financial aid for the completion of trade transactions. Moreover, decreases the risk factors in financing during the occurrence of trade. Few notable export financiers providing export finances are:
- Trade finance companies
- Export credit agencies
Bank as Export Finance Providers
Banks assistance by providing various aspects involved in global trade. Further offers letter of credit, supply chain finance, open account finance, pre shipment finance, post shipment finance, CC Limit, OD Limit, etc.
Trade Finance companies as Export Finance providers
Besides the letter of credit and supply chain finance, they provide structural export finance, invoices, discountable transactions, etc.
Insurers as Export Finance Providers
Their assistance is similar to the aid given by Banks. Additionally, offer receivable finance, due finance, letters of credit, lending for asset proof, and term loans.
Export Credit Agencies
They provide loans for the purpose along with insurance during transactions. These are provided as credit insurances and financial guarantees.
Types of Finances
In this type, a loan is procured that has to be reimbursed in installments over a period of time. Further, it provides longer terms like 10 to 30 years for repayments and significantly varies on the financier. However, the rate of interest is high compared to other finance options for exporters. Considerably, these are beneficial for long term projects when the establishments are expecting to incur profits after a period of time.
Working Capital Limits like Overdraft or Cash Credit (CC)
This is an easy method to apply for working capital by exporters. Similar to loans, however, these are for short term working capital requirement. Nonetheless, should be reimbursed as soon the credit flow is normal. This option is beneficial for exporters as they can avail and pay back per shipment basis.
Letters of Credit (LC)
Basically, used to decrease the chances of risk during non-receipt transactions. Further, this is provided by the banks, hence, the risk factor is minimal to non-existence depending on the grade of bank issuing the LC. Also, in the case of hindrance, the bank will be in charge of the payment depending on the type of LC which can be payable at sight or credit period, Irrevocable or revocable and confirmed or unconfirmed.
Issue this under the bank or financial institution facilitates easier liquidation. Moreover, the institution can buy, collect, or discount the bill.
Pre Shipment Packing Credit and Post Shipment Finance
Pre Shipment packing credit means availing finance capital before shipment from any financier. Further, this is issuable in the form of packing credit.
Post Shipment finance basically means financing against invoice and other shipping documents after the export shipment is executed. The advantage of pre-shipment and post shipment finance options is low interest rate in Foreign Currency at REPO rates.
This export insurance provides a guarantee for shipment, pay, and delivery. This is devised to maintain and respect the transparency and cover risks of exporters.
Benefits of Export financing
- Ease in the transaction along with speeding up the entire process
- Reduces lag time
- Primarily works by providing capitals to stabilize the transaction
- Positive effect on the complete establishment in international scale
- No necessity to liquidate the equity
- Flexible option avoiding financial risks
- Expands market while increasing business volume